In vitro percutaneous penetration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sunscreen creams

6 Febbraio 2013

 
 
Paolucci V, Liberatori R, Pescaglini M, Sartorelli P

Authors   [Indice]

Paolucci V 1, Liberatori R1, Pescaglini M1, Sartorelli P1

1Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Surgical and Neurological Sciences,
University of Siena, Italy


Citation: Paolucci V, Liberatori R, Pescaglini M, Sartorelli P. In vitro percutaneous penetration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from sunscreen creams. Prevent Res 2013; 3 (1):34-38.   
Available from: http://www.preventionandresearch.com/ . doi: 10.7362/2240-2594.096.2013


doi: 10.7362/2240-2594.096.2013


Key words: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, sunscreen creams, percutaneous penetration

Abstract   [Indice]

Background: Dermal exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) affects many outdoor workers such as asphalt workers. Usually the use of sunscreen creams is suggested to protect them from UV radiation. However sunscreen could prevent or facilitate dermal absorption of industrial chemicals.
  
Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess percutaneous penetration of anthracene using 2 different sunscreen creams as vehicle.
 
Methods: In vitro permeation experiments were carried out using standardized in vitro methods with static diffusion cells. Excised human skin prepared to approximately 350 mm thickness was fixed on the diffusion cells. The receiving phase was a saline solution with 6% PEG 20. The 2 sunscreen creams (one lipophilic and one hydrophilic) were applied uniformly (2mg/cm2) on the skin mounted on the diffusion cell. After 20 minutes, a solution of anthracene and artificial sweat was added. Analysis of anthracene in the receptor samples was carried out by beta counter analyzer (Packard).
 
Results: Results did not show a percutaneous penetration of anthracene from sunscreen creams while in previous studies in vitro percutaneous penetration of anthracene was demonstrated using the same methodology.
 
Discussion and Conclusion: The use of sunscreen creams among outdoor workers, would not seem to enhance percutaneous penetration of PAHs. On the contrary it seems to be able to reduce dermal absorption of anthracene in the workplace.

Background   [Indice]

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be absorbed through the skin (1, 2, 3). The contamination of workers’ skin occurs in a variety of workplaces by deposition of vapors and particles or by splashing, representing an important route of uptake. Dermal exposure to PAHs affects many outdoor workers such as asphalt workers. Usually the use of sunscreen creams is suggested to protect them from UV radiation. However sunscreens could prevent or facilitate dermal absorption of industrial chemicals.
The aim of the study was to assess percutaneous penetration of anthracene after the application of 2 different sunscreen creams (one lipophilic and one hydrophilic).

Methods   [Indice]

In vitro permeation experiments were carried out using standardized in vitro methods (4) with static diffusion cells (FDC 400, Crown Glass Co, NJ US). The test apparatus was kept at a constant temperature of 37°C so that the skin surface temperature was 32°C. Static ambered cells with individual magnetic stirring and an exposure area of 1.77 cm2 (diameter 1.5 cm) were used. Excised human skin (obtained from plastic surgery) prepared to approximately 350 mm thickness was fixed on the diffusion cells. Skin samples were frozen at -80° and stored for a maximum of 6 months. The receiving phase was a saline solution with 6% PEG-20 oleyl-ether. Lipophilic substances such as PAHs were previously found to diffuse well with this receptor (5). Yang et al (1986) using this type of experimental setting reported a similar percutaneous absorption of anthracene in vivo on the rat and in vitro through dermotomed rat skin with an in vitro penetration of 20% of the applied dose after 24 hours (6). The lipophilic and hydrophilic sunscreen creams were applied uniformly (2mg/cm2) on the skin mounted on 24 and 32 diffusion cells respectively. After 20 minutes a solution of [14C]-labeled anthracene (Sigma Aldrich) and artificial sweat was added. Nine 500 µl samples for each cell were drown every hour for 8 h and at 24 hours and replaced with receptor fluid. Analysis of 14C-anthracene in the receptor samples was carried out by beta counter analyzer (Packard).

Results   [Indice]

Results did not show a percutaneous penetration of anthracene after the application of sunscreen creams.

Conclusions   [Indice]

The use of sunscreen creams among outdoor workers would not seem to enhance percutaneous penetration of anthracene. Taking into consideration the results there is no basis for assuming that sunscreens facilitate dermal absorption of PAHs.
  
 
Table 1 - In vitro percutaneous penetration through human skin of 63Ni chloride e 57Co chloride from two different vehicles (14).

compound vehicle % after 24 h
(M ± SD)
% in the epidermis
(M ± SD)
% in the stratum corneum
(M ± SD)
63Ni water 0.23 ± 0.34 0.42 ± 0.55 50.33 ± 19.91
63Ni artificial sweat 0.76 ± 1.21 0.34 ± 0.19 36.16 ± 9.30
57Co water 1.04 ± 0.64 0.37 ± 0.20 27.62 ± 14.96
57Co artificial sweat 3.30 ± 2.65 0.23 ± 0.14 41.30 ± 18.83


Fig. 1 - In vitro cumulative percutaneous penetration through human skin of 203HgCl2 applied in two different concentrations in an acqueous vehicle (13).


Fig. 2 - In vitro percutaneous penetration through human skin of 203HgCl2 applied in two different concentrations in an acqueous vehicle (13).


References   [Indice]

References
1.Van Rooij JGM, Van Lieshout EMA, Bodelier-Bade MM, Jongeneelen FJ. Effect of the reduction of skin contamination on the internal dose of creosote workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Scand J Work Environ Health 1993; 19: 200-207.
2.Moody RP, Nadeau B, Chu I. In vivo and in vitro dermal absorption of benzo(a)pyrene in rat, guinea pig, human and tissue-cultured skin. J Dermatol Sci 1995; 9: 48-58.
3.Fustinoni S, Campo L, Cirla PE, et al. Dermal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in asphalt workers. Occup Environ Med 2010; 67: 456-463.
4.Van de Sandt JJM, Van Burgsteden JA, et al. In vitro predictions of skin absorption of caffeine, testosterone and benzoic acid: a multi-centre coparison study. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2004; 39: 271-281.
5.Bronaugh RL, Stewart RF. Methods for in vitro percutaneous absorption studies III: Hydrophobic compounds J Pharm 3. Sci 1984; 73: 1255-1258.
6.Yang JJ, Roy TA, Mackerer CR. Percutaneous absorption of anthracene in the rat: comparison of in vitro and in vitro. Toxicol Ind Health 1986; 2: 79-84.

Corresponding Author   [Indice]

Pietro Sartorelli
Unit of Occupational Medicine, Department of Medical Surgical and Neurological Sciences,
University of Siena, Italy
e-mail: info@preventionandresearch.com

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Galleria fotografica
Fig. 1 - In vitro cumulative percutaneous penetrat
Fig. 2 - In vitro percutaneous penetration through